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Autism spectrum disorders are associated with fetal growth extremely below or above average for gestational age

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Question: What is the association between fetal growth, gestational age and autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

People: A total 4283 children with ASD (1755 with and 2528 without intellectual disability) and 36 588 age-matched and sex-matched controls sampled from the Stockholm Youth Cohort study, which included all children aged 0–17 years residing in Stockholm County between 2001 and 2007 (n=589 114). Cohort exclusions: those who had not lived in Stockholm for at least 4 years, were adopted, were not born in Sweden, were twins or had incomplete obstetric information available.

Setting: Sweden; 2001–2007.

Risk factors: Fetal growth and gestational age and weight at birth, as recorded in the Swedish Medical Birth registry. Fetal growth was measured by ultrasound during the second trimester, and deviance in growth was classified as a z score (SDs below or above the mean for gestational age). Gestational age at birth was categorised according …

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  • Competing interests None.